The great monologue was winding down. Moses had been on the mountain for almost 6 weeks. Here we find God's final instructions to him. The principles of the law and the blueprints for tabernacle worship were nearly complete.
With wisdom and kindness God did not send Moses down to do the job alone. God pointed out a couple of very special men who would lead in the construction of the Tabernacle. By God's Spirit, Bezaleel was an expert metallurgist, jeweler and carpenter. Along with Bezaleel God picked Aholiab to help lead in the production of all of the items that were necessary for the construction of the tabernacle and of all of the priestly implements.
Then God reminded Moses of the 4th commandment again. So far there are 2 commandments out of the big 10 that God has reiterated the most: no idols and respect the holy Sabbath. Here, in Exodus 31:14-15, God states plainly that any violation of His Sabbath was a capital crime. Work Sunday to Friday; rest Saturday - period. That was God's requirement for the Jews. And, in this passage He listed three reasons why it mattered so much. 1. It was a permanent sign of the covenant (Exodus 31:13 & 16), 2. It was proof that God was their deliverer (Exodus 31:13) & 3. It was a reminder of God's example (Exodus 31:17).
Truly it takes faith to stop what you're doing when there is still much to be done...just because God said stop. We can get more done in 6 days with God's help than we can in 7 days without it. In the institution of the Sabbath, God was providing a time of rejuvenation for His children... each week (Mark 2:27). And, He was giving them an evident test of their faith.
Probably the most amazing part of this whole chapter is found in verse 17, "In 6 days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the 7th day He rested, and was refreshed." God was refreshed? What can mean for our omnipotent God to catch His breath?
Finally, God handed Moses the rigid stone tablets upon which the second version of His law was written. They were as fragile as the moral code which they bore. There were 4 laws governing man's interactions with God... and, 6 rules controlling man's interactions with each other. Frankly, it was an impossible proposition.